Eustace the Monk
"During the Early Middle Ages the standard trading ship in northern Europe was the knorr, a vessel developed from the Viking ships that had dominated European waters since the eighth century. The knorr was pointed at both ends, open-decked, and clinker built--overlapped planks formed the hull. A single mast and square sail provided propulsion, while a steering oar acted as a rudder.
As maritime trade grew in 13th-century northern Europe, these ships were modified to improve their efficiency. An improved sail plan and bowsprit gave the vessel more speed, while raised platforms at the bow and stern provided shelter. They also acted as a fighting platform if the ship was attacked--and as maritime trade grew, so did piracy. The depiction of a battle against the pirate called Eustace the Monk in 1217 shows vessels of this type."
The History of Pirates,
"By the Middle Ages piracy was already an ancient occupation, and it experienced a remarkable upsurge in European waters as trade increased.
Among the most brazen brigands was Eustace the Monk, a renegade Flemish cleric who plundered French shipping for England's King John. But his greed led him to prey on English ships as well, and in 1212 he was forced to flee England.
Eustace then sold his services to the French and led an attempt to invade England. But the English sailors blinded the French by hurling lime at their ships and then followed up with a deadly rain of arrows. Eustace was captured and decapitated on the spot."
The Seafarers: THE PIRATES,
Image to follow
Medieval pirate Eustace the Monk, a fall-away cleric believed to have black magical power, is executed after his defeat in the Straits of Dover in 1217. Matthew Paris--a monk in good standing-- vividly recorded his demise with this dramatic sketch.
historical reference : SURRENDER : witness accounts